Monday, September 20, 2010

CCNP - ENTERPRISE - Considering the Client...

In the TSHOOT exam the bulk of the trouble tickets will pretty much be Client1 cannot access [insert resource here], identify the problem device and present a solution.

The TSHOOT topology is freely available from the Cisco website - here - and so we can take a look and start to suggest possible problems that can be presented. On it we have BGP, OSPF, EIGRP and redistribution, NAT, DHCP, IPv6 Tunnels, OSPFv3 and RIPng redistribution, we've got first hop redundancy and etherchannel, plus OSPF over Frame-Relay. Some pretty tasty stuff.

So, where to start? Well, lets say that Client1 can't access the web server at As I'm looking at client issues assume that the config between the web server all the way in to the network to R4 is fine.

When I'm in the exam I'm going to be looking to ensure connectivity to Client1's default gateway and the DHCP server at R4 is sound. When I find that Client1 is unable to ping the default gateway or obtain a DHCP allocation here is what I'll be looking for:
1) Client1 IP Assignment - The L2/L3 topology diagram states that the address is obtained via DHCP (R4 at On Client1 do >ipconfig - if the address is move to ASW1, if the address is 169.X.X.X then DHCP is not working properly for some reason. In both cases move to ASW1

2) Interface VLAN membership - Client1 should be connected to int f1/0/1 - is it? if not then correct as appropriate. Interface f1/0/1 should be a member of VLAN 10 - does the VLAN exist? :
#sh vlan

Is int f1/0/1 a member of VLAN 10?:
#sh run int f1/0/1 OR #sh vlan

Does ASW1 have any port security?
#sh run int f1/0/1
if so what is configured here? Does any static MAC address match that of Client1? does the port limit number of MAC addresses per interface? Problem is here is if port security is incorrect. Otherwise move on

3) Is VLAN 10 allowed on the trunks?
Firstly prove int Po13 is an active Etherchannel and that interfaces f1/0/19-20 are members
#sh etherchannel summary - Trouble shoot accordingly if this is not the case.

Next is int Po13 a trunk link?
#sh interfaces trunk - if not then problem is here.

Next which VLAN's are allowed on the trunk links?
#sh interfaces po13 trunk - if VLAN10 is not here then you won't get to DSW1

Next, can you see any VLAN filtering in place? if so check that any permited ACL has the correct ip range otherwise traffic from will not be allowed to use VLAN10. Also check the vlan access-map config ensure that the traffic allowed in the ACL is forwarded not dropped.

Do step 3 on both ASW1 and DSW1. If one side is not configured correctly then connectivity will fail.
If everything looks good you should be able to at least ping VLAN10's dfg at on DSW1, move on.

4) Check routing on DSW1:
- DSW1 is an L3 switch that needs to send your DHCPDISCOVER to the DHCP server on a different network. As such ensure ip routing is enabled:
DSW1#sh run | begin ip routing
- Check L3 connectivity between DSW1 and R4 - Ping, check interfaces are UP/UP
DSW1#sh ip interface brief
- Check DSW1 int f1/0/1 is not admin'd down:

- If all looks good here check that the ip-helper command is applied to interface VLAN 10:
DSW1(config)#int vlan10
DSW1(config-if)#ip helper-address
(this will tell DSW1 to forward UDP broadcasts received on this interface)

5) You should now be at R4. If all of the above looks good then you should look above L2/L3 to DHCP or other factors.

6) DHCP configuration:
- Is DHCP running on R4? look for service dhcp in #sh run
- Are there any leases active? check - #sh ip dhcp bindings
Check the Hardware Address with that of Client1 to ensure the correct Client has an assignment. If you've discounted steps 1-4 I'd be surprised if this was the case.
- Check the DHCP address pool is correctly configured:
DSW1#sh run | begin ip dhcp
look for any kind of misconfig here be it incorrect subnet defined for the pool or an exclude address incorrect

7) At this point I'd expect to have uncovered an issue. If that's not case there's still some tactics I can try.
i) Kevin Wallace suggested Abort! - if you think you've narrowed the issue to a point but are unsure of the final solution, hit Abort, dive in to a different ticket and cross check the config. If the config is different the here is your fault. If it's the same then you can discount that area as the source of the problem and move on
ii) Let the question guide you - you've narrowed the issue to, lets say, DSW1 but are still unsure. Review the options available to you in part 2 and part 3 of the trouble ticket and use the information there to gleen if you are looking in the right place.

I think I've covered off the major issues that could be presented. I guess HSRP on DSW1 could be an issue but if DSW2 is the active router (#sh standby) then you should still be able to reach the DHCP server at

Please let me know if I've missed a point or am miss guided in any way. Thanks

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