Wednesday, November 30, 2011

Extend your LAN across multiple sites using L2TPv3 Tunnels

We have a situation where we want to move a number of servers from our office to our data centre. In order for our networking monitoring to remain active we need to be able to present the same subnet at both locations as though they were on a local LAN.

To achieve this we've implemented L2TPv3 Tunnels (L2 tunnel) using Pseudo-wires on routers at each location.

This article is to document the steps taken to implement the solution so I have record it should I want to do this again.

First off a few definitions courtesy of
L2TPv3 -Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol Version 3 is an IETF standard related to L2TP that can be used as an alternative protocol to Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) for encapsulation of multiprotocol Layer 2 communications traffic over IP networks. Like L2TP, L2TPv3 provides a ‘pseudo-wire’ service, but scaled to fit carrier requirements.

Pseudo-wire - a pseudowire (or pseudo-wire) is an emulation of a point-to-point connection over a packet-switching network. The service being carried over the "wire" may be Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM), Frame Relay, Ethernet or Time-division multiplexing (TDM) while the packet network may be Multi-protocol label switching (MPLS), Internet Protocol (IPv4 or IPv6), or Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol Version 3 (L2TPv3).

You will need:
  • 2 routers capable of configuring L2tpv3 and Pseudo-wires, in our case we used Cisco 1841 routers running IOS:c1841-spservicesk9-mz.124-17b.bin
  • Loopback interfaces on each router configured with an IP address (/32) that is routable to. These are the source IP's in your config so make sure you can ping them from each side before you start with the L2TPv3 tunnel config.
The network will look like this:

You are going to configure the tunnel on routers R3 and R4 with the tunnel configuration applied to the LAN side port on each router. The source of the tunnel will be a loopback interface on each router, so this needs to be routable.

Step 1 - Configure your routers for general connectivity. Apply a /32 address to Lo0, apply a public IP to your WAN side interface and leave the LAN side interface with out an IP.

Step 2 - Configure your routing. How ever you choose to configure your routing (EIGRP, OSPF, Static) you need to ensure R3 can ping Lo0 on R4 and visa versa.

Step 3 - Define your L2TPv3 'class' - used to configure connection parameters such as authentication and hello timers. Configure it on each router as follow:
R3#conf t
R3(config)# l2tp-class networkstV3class
R3(config)#password N3tw0rkStud1es
R4#conf t
R4(config)# l2tp-class networkstV3class
R4(config)#password N3tw0rkStud1es

Step 4 - Next apply this to a Pseudo-Wire and define your Lo0 interface as the source of the L2TPv3 tunnel:
R3(config)#pseudowire-class NETWORKST-PW
R3(config-pw-class)#encapsulation l2tpv3
R3(config-pw-class)#protocol l2tpv3 networkstV3class
R3(config-pw-class)#ip local interface loopback0

R4(config)#pseudowire-class NETWORKST-PW
R4(config-pw-class)#encapsulation l2tpv3
R4(config-pw-class)#protocol l2tpv3 networkstV3class
R4(config-pw-class)#ip local interface loopback0

Step 5 - Finally apply the pseudo-wire to the interface that connects to your LAN:
R3(config)#int f0/1
R3(config-if)#xconnect 1 pw-class NETWORKST-PW
   - the xconnect cmd associates the interface f0/1 to the remote peer's pseudo-wire located at
 - the figure 1 is a virtual circuit ID and needs to match at both ends.

R4(config)#int f0/1
R4(config-if)#xconnect 1 pw-class NETWORKST-PW

Step 6 - Verify the configuration, use the following command to verify the tunnel is up:
R3#sh l2tun tunnel all
%No active L2F tunnels
L2TP Tunnel Information Total tunnels 1 sessions 1

Tunnel id 60290 is up, remote id is 28046, 1 active sessions
  Tunnel state is established, time since change 20:14:20
  Tunnel transport is IP (115)
  Remote tunnel name is R4
    Internet Address, port 0
  Local tunnel name is R3
    Internet Address, port 0
  Tunnel domain unknown
  VPDN group for tunnel is not available
  L2TP class for tunnel is l2tp_default_class
  271913 packets sent, 31678 received
  36256510 bytes sent, 2837214 received
  Last clearing of "show vpdn" counters never
  Control Ns 1216, Nr 1218
  Local RWS 1200 (default), Remote RWS 1200 (max)
  Tunnel PMTU checking disabled
  Retransmission time 1, max 1 seconds
  Unsent queuesize 0, max 0
  Resend queuesize 0, max 1
  Total resends 0, ZLB ACKs sent 1217
  Current nosession queue check 0 of 5
  Retransmit time distribution: 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
  Sessions disconnected due to lack of resources 0

%No active PPTP tunnels

- here you are really looking at Packet sent and received. Should you find that either is zero then trouble shoot accordingly. Look at physical connectivity and routing.

Once you have active tunnels connect the LAN side interface to a switch on the same VLAN as your office LAN then connect your servers.

Monday, November 28, 2011

Cisco studies - What next...

Since I attained my CCNP I've been looking at what to do next. Should I continue on to the CCIE? or look at exploring some of the specialisms Cisco has developed in the time it took for me to go through CCNA and then CCNP?

At first I thought I would continue straight on the CCIE R&S but I'm struggling to get over the shear volume of knowledge required to go for the written (yes I appreciate it's supposed to be hard but I've got a young family to factor in...) So after a few very interesting weeks at work I've decided to go for CCDA then CCDP.

Starting in January my next posts will be aligned to the CCDA certification. Here goes...